Lääketieteessä tehdään jatkuvasti valtavia määriä tutkimustyötä, ja alati päivittyvä tieto haastaa jatkuvasti totunnaisia käsityksiämme. Tällä sivulla listattu viitekirjallisuus saattaa yllättää lukijansa: ne asettavat monet olettamuksemme kyseenalaisiksi. Tämä on hyvä asia, sillä kliinisessä päätöksenteossa vanhentuneen tiedon pohjalta ei voida tehdä järkeviä ratkaisuja. Vastuullisen terveydenhuollon ammattilaisen on tehtävä parhaansa seuratakseen alansa tutkimustyötä, jotta työskentely perustuisi parhaaseen saatavilla olevaan tietoon. Näin pyritään varmistamaan terveydenhuollon asiakkaalle paras mahdollinen hoito. Tätä viitekirjallisuuslistaa ei ole tehty todistelemaan manuaalisen terapian puolesta, vaan sen tarkoitus on auttaa lukijaansa erottamaan faktat fiktiosta.




The Mechanisms of Manual Therapy in The Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Comprehensive Model. Bialosky et al. 2008.

Sensitization and Interoception as Key Neurological Concepts in Osteopathy and Other Manual Medicines.  D’Alessandro et al. 2016.

A new Paradigm in Manual Therapy: Abandoning Segmental Motion Palpation. Jam 2016.

A process approach in manual and physical therapies: beyond the structural model. Lederman 2015.

The myth of core stability. Lederman 2008.

The fall oft the postural-structural-biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: Exemplified by lower back pain. Lederman 2010.

The traditional mechanistic paradigm in the teaching and practice of manual therapy: Time for a reality check. Wellness 2010.




Bronfort, Gert - Haas, Mitch - Evans, Roni - Leininger, Brent - Triano, Jay 2010: Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies.

NCOR 2016: Evidence to support osteopathic treatment of the cervical and thoracic spine – a summary table of osteopathic and osteopathic-relevant evidence. National Council for Osteopathic Research.

NCOR 2016: Evidence to support osteopathic treatment of low back pain – a summary table of osteopathic and osteopathic-relevant evidence. National Council for Osteopathic Research.

NCOR 2013: Evidence to support osteopathic treatment of musculoskeletal pain – a summary table of evidence. National Council for Osteopathic Research.

Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW 2012: Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain. Cochrane review.

Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW 2011: Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane review.

Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW 2013: Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low back pain: an update of the cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Feb 1;38(3):E158-77.

Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW 2011: Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain: an update of a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jun;36(13):E825-46.


Ryhdistä ja biomekaniikasta


'Beales, Darren - O’Sullivan, Peter 2013: Sacroiliac Joint - Pelvis. In Touch.

Jam, Bahram 2016: A new Paradigm in Manual Therapy: Abandoning Segmental Motion Palpation. Advanced Physical Therapy Education Institute (APTEI), Thornhill, ON, Canada

Lederman, Eyal 2008: The myth of core stability. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (2010) 14, 84-98. Elsevier.

Lederman, Eyal 2010: The fall oft the postural-structural-biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: Exemplified by lower back pain. CPDO Online Journal (2010). March.

Wellens, Frédéric 2010: The traditional mechanistic paradigm in the teaching and practice of manual therapy: Time for a reality check. Clinique Physio Axis.

Zusman, Max 1998: Structure-oriented beliefs and disability due to back pain. Aust J Physiother. 1998;44(1):13-20.

Zusman, Max 2013: Belief reinforcement: one reason why costs for low back pain have not decreased. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.


Manuaalisen terapian vaikutusmekanismeista


Bialosky, Joel E. - Bishop, Mark D. - Price, Don D. - Robinson, Michael E. - George, Steven Z. 2008: The Mechanisms of Manual Therapy in The Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Comprehensive Model. US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health.

Bialosky JE, Bishop M, George S 2011: Placebo response to manual therapy: something out of nothing? J Man Manip Ther. 2011 Feb;19(1):11–9.

Bialosky JE, George SZ, Horn ME, Price DD, Staud R, Robinson ME. 2014: Spinal manipulative therapy-specific changes in pain sensitivity in individuals with low back pain. J Pain. 2014 Feb;15(2):136-48.

Buttagat V, Eungpinichpong W, Kaber D, Chatchawan U, Arayawichanon P. 2012: Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on electroencephalogram in patients with scapulocostal syndrome. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Aug;20(4):167-74. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Courtney, C.A. - Steffen, A.D. - Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C. - Kim, J. - Chmell, S.J. 2016: Joint Mobilization Enhances Mechanisms of Conditioned Pain Modulation in Individuals With Osteoarthritis of the Knee.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2016 Mar;46(3):168-76. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2016.6259. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

D’Alessandro, Giandomenico - Cerritelli, Francesco - Cortelli, Pietro 2016: Sensitization and Interoception as Key Neurological Concepts in Osteopathy and Other Manual Medicines. Frontiers in Neuroscience 10 March 2016.

George, Steven Z. - Bishop, Mark D. - Bialosky, Joel E. - Zeppieri, Giorgio - Robinson, Michael E. 2006: Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006, 7:68.

Hegedus EJ, Goode A, Butler RJ, Slaven E. The neurophysiological effects of a single session of spinal joint mobilization: does the effect last? J Man Manip Ther. 2011; 19: 143– 151.

Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion - Newham, Di - Critchley, Duncan John 2016: Mechanism of Action of Spinal Mobilizations: A Systematic Review. Spine January 2016 - Volume 41 . Issue 2. Wolters Kluwer Health.

Rodriguez-Sanz et al. 2017: Effects of Median Nerve Neural Mobilization in Treating Cervicobrachial Pain: A Randomized Waiting List-controlled Clinical Trial. Pain Pract. 2017 Jul 22.

Santos, Fabio - Grecco, Leandro - Pereira, Marcelo - Oliveira, Mara - Rocha, Priscila - Silva, Joyce - Martins, Daniel - Miyabara, Elen - Chacur, Marucia 2014: The neural mobilization technique modulates the expression of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray and improves muscle strength and mobility in rats with neuropathic pain. Behavioral and Brain Functions 2014, 10:19

Sefton JM, Yarar C, Carpenter DM, Berry JW. 2011: Physiological and clinical changes after therapeutic massage of the neck and shoulders. Man Ther. 2011 Oct;16(5):487-94. Epub 2011 May 12.

Sliz, D. - Smith, A. - Wiebking, C. - Northoff, G. - Hayley, S. 2012: Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Mar; 6(1): 77–87. Published online 2012 Jan 20.

Vigotsky, Andrew D. - Bruhns, Ryan P. 2012: The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review. Pain Research and Treatment. Volume 2015 (2015).

Zhou, Linqiu - Schneck, Carson D. - Shao, Zenhai 2012: The Anatomy of Dorsal Ramus Nerves and Its Implications in Lower Back Pain. Neuroscience & Medicine, 2012, 3, 192-201

Zusman, Max 2002: Forebrain-mediated sensitization of central pain pathways: 'non-specific' pain and a new image for MT. Man Ther. 2002 May;7(2):80-8.

Zusman Max 1994: The meaning of mechanically induced responses. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy Volume 40, Issue 1, 1994, Pages 35–39


Ihon hermotuksen osallisuudesta asentotunto- ja liikeaistiin sekä kosketuksen vaikutuksista kipuun


Bark, K, Wheeler, J.W., Premakumar, S., Cutkosky, M. R., 2008, Comparison of Skin Stretch and Vibrotactile Stimulation for Feedback of Proprioceptive Information. Center for Design Research Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University.

Brugger, P., Meier, R., 2015, A New Illusion at Your Elbow. Perception February vol. 44 no. 2 219-221

Collins, D. F. - Refshauge, K. M. - Todd, G. - Gandevia, S. C. 2005: Cutaneous Receptors Contribute to Kinesthesia at the Index Finger, Elbow, and Knee. J Neurophysiol 94:1699-1706, 2005. First published 25 May 2005; doi:10.1152/jn.00191.2005

Collins, D.F., and Prochazka, A, 1996, Movement illusions evoked by ensemble cutaneous input from the dorsum of the human hand. Journal of Physiology, 496.3, pp.857-871

Collins, D.F, Refshauge, K.M., and Gandevia, S.C., 2000, Sensory integration in the perception of movements at the human metacarpophalangeal joint. J Physiol. Dec 1; 529(Pt 2): 505–515.

Edin BB and Johansson N 1995: Skin strain patterns provide kinaesthetic information to the human central nervous system. human central nervous system. J Physiology 1995 487.1 243-251

Foster, E., et al. 2015: Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation Establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch. Neuron, 85: 1289-1304

Ito, Takayuki - Ostry, David J. 2010: Somatosensory Contribution to Motor Learning Due to Facial Skin Deformation

Jacobs, Diane 2007: Dermoneuromodulation treatment manual.

Lundblad, L.C., Olausson, H.W., Malmeström, C., and Wasling, H.B., 2010: Processing in prefrontal cortex underlies tactile direction discrimination: An fMRI study of a patient with a traumatic spinal cord lesion. Neurosci Lett. Oct 15;483(3):197-200.

Mancini, F. - Nash, T. - Iannetti, G.D. - Haggard, P., 2014: Pain relief by touch: A quantitative approach. PAIN Volume 155, Issue 3 , Pages 635-642, March

Mancini, Flavia - Beaumont, Anne-Lise - Hu, Li - Haggard, Patrick - Iannetti, Gian Domenico D. 2015: Touch inhibits subcortical and cortical nociceptive responses. Pain: October 2015 - Volume 156 - Issue 10 - p 1936–1944

Mildren, ML - Hare, CM - Bent, LR 2017: Cutaneous afferent feedback from the posterior ankle contributes to proprioception. Neurosci Lett (Neuran artikkeli)

Panek, I. , Bui, T., Wright, A.T.B., and Brownstone, R.M., 2014: Cutaneous afferent regulation of motor function. Acta Neurobiol Exp. 74: 158–171

Proske, Uwe - Gandevia, Simon C. 2009: The kinaesthetic senses. The Journal of Physiology. September 1, 2009, 587, 4139-4146.

Shechter, R - Baruch, K - Schwartz, M - Rolls, A. 2011: Touch gives new life: mechanosensation modulates spinal cord adult neurogenesis. Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;16(3):342-52

Staud R, Robinson ME, Goldman CT, Price DD.: Attenuation of experimental pain by vibro-tactile stimulation in patients with chronic local or widespread musculoskeletal pain. Eur J Pain. 2011 Sep;15(8):836-42. Epub 2011 Feb 19.


Manuaalisen terapian muista vaikutuksista


Lederman, Eyal 2015: A process approach in manual and physical therapies: beyond the structural model. CPDO Online Journal (2015), May, p1-18.

Major et al. 2015: Massage-like stroking boosts the immune system in mice. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 10913.

Shim, Jung-Myo MSc -Kim Sung-Joong PT, PhD 2014: Effects of Manual Lymph Drainage of the Neck on EEG in Subjects with Psychological Stress. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014 Jan; 26(1): 127–129. Published online 2014 Feb 6.

Schad, H. - Brechtelsbauer, H. 1977: Thoracic duct lymph flow and composition in conscious dogs and the influence of anaesthesia and passive limb movement. European Journal of Physiology Vol. 371, Issue 1-2, pp. 25-31.

Tejero-Fernández V, Membrilla-Mesa M, Galiano-Castillo N, Arroyo-Morales M. 2015: Immunological effects of massage after exercise: A systematic review. Phys Ther Sport. 2015 May;16(2):187-92. Epub 2014 Jul 21.




George, Steven Z - Childs, John D. - Teyhen, Deydre S. - Wu, Samuel S. - Wright, Alison C. - Dugan, Jessica L. - Robinson, Michael E. 2011: Brief psychosocial education, not core stabilization, reduced incidence of low back pain: results from the Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) cluster randomized trial. BMC Medicine.

Geuter, Stephan - Büchel, Christian 2013: Facilitation of Pain in the Human Spinal Cord by Nocebo Treatment. Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany

International Assiciation for the Study of Pain 2012: IASP Taxonomy. Pain Terms.

Louw, Adriaan - Diener, Ina, Butler, David S. - Puentedura, Emilio J. 2011: The Effect of Neuroscience Education on Pain, Disability, Anxiety, and Stress in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. December 2011 Volume 92, Issue 12, Pages 2041–2056

Louw, Adriaan et al. 2016: The effect of manual therapy and neuroplasticity education on chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.  The Journal of manual & manipulative therapy 25(5):1-8 · September 2016

Louw, Adriaan - Nijs, Jo - Puentedura, Emilio J. (2017): A clinical perspective on a pain neuroscience education approach to manual therapy, Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy.

Melzack, Ronald 2001: Pain and the Neuromatrix in the Brain. Journal of Dental Education December 1, 2001 vol. 65 no. 12 1378-1382.

Melzack, Ronald - Katz Joel 2013: Pain. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1–15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201


Manipulaation (nivelen naksauttamisen) turvallisuudesta


Ernst, Edzard 2007: Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2007 Jul; 100(7): 330–338.

Haldeman, Scott - Rubinstein, Sidney 1992: Cauda Equina Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Manipulation of the Lumbar Spine. Spine.

Kranenburg, H. A. - Schmitt, Ma. A. - Puentedura, E. J. - Luijckx, G. J. - van der Schans, C. P. 2017: Adverse events associated with the use of cervical spine manipulation or mobilization and patient characteristics: A systematic review. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017 Jan 23; 28:32-38.

Puentedura, Emilio J. 2015: Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic view. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy.

Stevinson, Clare - Honan, Will - Cooke, Brian - Ernst, Edzard 2001: Neurological complications of cervical spine manipulation. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Volume 94 March 2001.


Manipulaation (nivelen naksauttamisen) vaihtoehdoista


Crothers et al. 2016: Spinal manipulative therapy, Graston technique® and placebo for non-specific thoracic spine pain: a randomised controlled trial. Chiropr Man Therap. 2016; 24: 16.

Donaldson M, Petersen S, , et al A Prescriptively Selected Non-Thrust Manipulation Versus a Therapist Selected Non-Thrust Manipulation for Treatment of Individuals With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2016 Mar 8:1-29.

Flynn TW, Fritz JM, Wainner RS, The audible pop is not necessary for successful spinal high-velocity thrust manipulation in individuals with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Jul;84(7):1057–60.

Kent, P., Marks, D., Pearson, W., and Keating, J. 2005: Does clinician treatment choice improve the outcomes of manual therapy for nonspecific low back pain? A metaanalysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. Jun;28(5):312-22.

Leaver, A. M. - Maher, C. G. - Herbert, R. D. - Latimer, J. - McAuley J. H. - Jull, G. - Refshauge, K. M. 2010: A randomized controlled trial comparing manipulation with mobilization for recent onset neck pain.

Sutlive TG, Mabry LM, Easterling EJ, Durbin JD, Hanson SL, Wainner RS, Childs JD. Comparison of short-term response to two spinal manipulation techniques for patients with low back pain in a military beneficiary population. Mil Med. 2009 Jul;174(7):750-6.


Käsin tutkimisen tarkkuudesta ja luotettavuudesta


Abbott JH, Flynn TW, Fritz JM, Hing WA, Reid D, Whitman JM. Manual physical assessment of spinal segmental motion: intent and validity. Man Ther. 2009 Feb;14(1):36-44.

Beneck, George J. - Kulig, Kornelia - Landel, Robert F. - Powers, Christopher M. 2005: The Relationship Between Lumbar Segmental Motion and Pain Response Produced by a Posterior-to-Anterior Force in Persons With Nonspecific Low Back Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. Volume 35, issue 4.

Cornwall, Jon - Mercer, Susan R. 2004: Anatomy in Practice: Lumbar Zygapophysial Joint Palpation. New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy 32(3) 140-142.

Haneline MT, Young M. A review of intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of static spinal palpation: a literature synthesis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Jun;32(5):379-86.

Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000 May;23(4):258-75.

Huijbregts PA. Spinal Motion Palpation: A Review of Reliability Studies. J Man Manip Ther. 2002 Jan1;10(1):24–39.

Keating, Joseph C. - Charlton, Keith H. - Grod, Jaroslaw, P. - Perle, Stephen M. - Sikorski, David - Winterstein, James F. 2005: Subluxation: dogma or science? Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2005, 13:17.

Landel R, Kulig K, Fredericson M, Li B, Powers CM. Intertester reliability and validity of motion assessments during lumbar spine accessory motion testing. Phys Ther. 2008 Jan;88(1):43–9.

Maher C, Adams R. Reliability of pain and stiffness assessments in clinical manual lumbar spine examination. Phys Ther. 1994 Sep;74(9):801–809; discussion 809–811.

Mirtz, Timothy A. - Morgan, Lon - Greene, Leon 2009: An epidemiological examination of the subluxation construct using Hill’s criteria of causation. Chiropr Osteopat. 2009; 17: 13.

Nyberg RE, Russell Smith A. The science of spinal motion palpation: a review and update with implications for assessment and intervention. J Man Manip Ther. 2013 Aug;21(3):160–7.

Pattyn E, Rajendran D2. Anatomical landmark position--can we trust what we see? Results from an online reliability and validity study of osteopaths. Man Ther. 2014 Apr;19(2):158-64.

Riddle, DL - Freburger, JK 2002: Evaluation of the presence of sacroiliac joint region dysfunction using a combination of tests: a multicenter intertester reliability study. Phys Ther 2002.

Seffinger, M.A., Najm, W.I., Mishra, S.I., Adams, A., Dickerson, V.M., Murphy, L.S., Reinsch, S. 2004: Reliability of spinal palpation for diagnosis of back and neck pain: a systematic review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Oct 1;29(19):E413-25.

Seffinger MA, Najm WI, Mishra SI, Adams A, Dickerson VM, Murphy LS, et al. Reliability of spinal palpation for diagnosis of back and neck pain: a systematic review of the literature. Spine. 2004 Oct 1;29(19):E413–425

Stovall, B.A., and Kumar, S. 2010: Reliability of Bony Anatomic Landmark Asymmetry Assessment in the Lumbopelvic Region: Application to Osteopathic Medical Education. J Am Osteopath Assoc. November ; 110(11): 667–674.

Sutton, C., Nono, L., Johnston, R.G., and Thomson, O.P. 2013: The effects of experience on the inter-reliability of osteopaths to detect changes in posterior superior iliac spine levels using a hidden heel wedge. J Bodyw Mov Ther. Apr;17(2):143-50

Troyanovich, S.J., Harrison, D.D., and Harrison, D.E. 1998: Motion palpation: it’s time to accept the evidence. J.Manipulative Physiol Ther. 21:568–571.

Walker, BF, Buchbinder, R. 1997: Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: a survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997;20:583–589.


Manuaalisen terapian kohdistumisen tarkkuudesta


Aquino, R. - Caires, P. - Furtado, F. - Loureiro, A - Ferreira P. - Ferreira, M. 2009: Applying Joint Mobilization at Different Cervical Vertebral Levels does not Influence Immediate Pain Reduction in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Man Manip Ther. 2009;17(2):95-100.

Chiradejnant, A. - Maher, C. - Latimer J. - Stepkovitch N. 2003: Efficacy of "therapist-selected" versus "randomly selected" mobilisation techniques for the treatment of low back pain: a randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother. 2003;49(4):233-41.

De Oliveira et al 2013: Immediate effects of region-specific and non-region-specific spinal manipulative therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

Dunning, J., Mourad F., Barbero M., Leoni, D., Cescon, C., and Butts, R. 2013: Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 14:24

Cleland JA, Childs JD, McRae M, Palmer JA, Stowell T. Immediate effects of thoracic manipulation in patients with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. Man Ther. 2005 May;10(2):127– 35.

Haik, Melina - Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco - Silva, Caroline - Siqueira-Junior, Aristides - Ribeiro, Ivana - Camargo, Paula 2014: Scapular Kinematics Pre and Post Thoracic Thrust Manipulation in Individuals With and Without Shoulder Impingement Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. Ahead of Print.

Harrison, DE, Harrison, DD, Troyanovich, SJ. Three-dimensional spinal coupling mechanics: Part I. A review of the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21:101–113.

Harrison, DE, Harrison, DD, Troyanovich, SJ. Three-dimensional spinal coupling mechanics: Part II. Implications for chiropractic theories and practice. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21:177–186.

Ross, J.K., Bereznick, D.E., and McGill, S.M., 2004, Determining cavitation location during lumbar and thoracic spinal manipulation: is spinal manipulation accurate and specific? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Jul 1;29(13):1452-7

Ross, Kim J. 2008: Scientifically Scrutinizing Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Canadian Chiropractor.

Schomacher, Jochen 2009: The effect of an analgesic mobilization technique when applied at symptomatic or asymptomatic levels of the cervical spine in subjects with neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Man Manip Ther. 2009;17(2):101-8.

Tullberg - Blomberg - Branth - Johnsson 1998: Manipulation does not alter the position of the sacroiliac joint. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.  Spine. 1998, May 15;23(10)


Manuaalisen terapian vaikutuksista kudoksiin


Chaudhry, H., Schleip, R., Ji, Z., Bukiet, B., Maney, M., and Findley, T. 2008: Three-dimensional mathematical model for deformation of human fasciae in manual therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc. Aug;108(8):379-90

Katalinic, O.M., Harvey, L.A., and Herbert, R.D. 2011: Effectiveness of Stretch for the Treatment and Prevention of Contractures in People With Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review. Physical Therapy Jan. vol. 91 no. 1 11-24

Laimi et al. 2017: Effectiveness of myofascial release in treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2017 Sep

Schleip R. Fascial plasticity – a new neurobiological explanation: Part 1. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2003 Jan 1;7(1):11–9.

Snodgrass, S.J., Rivett, D.A., and Robertson, V.J. 2006: Manual forces applied during posterior-to-anterior spinal mobilization: a review of the evidence. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. May;29(4):316-29.

Snodgrass, S. J. et al 2012: A structured review of spinal stiffness as a kinesiological outcome of manipulation: its measurement and utility in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decision-making. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012.

Threlkeld AJ. The effects of manual therapy on connective tissue. Phys Ther. 1992 Dec;72(12):893–902.

Vardiman et al. 2014: Instrument-assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization: Effects on the Properties of Human Plantar Flexors. International Journal of Sports Medicine Oct 27.

Weppler, C.H. and Magnusson, S.P. 2010: Increasing Muscle Extensibility: A Matter of Increasing Length or Modifying Sensation? Physical Therapy. March vol. 90 no. 3 438-449

Myofaskiaalisesta kivusta ja triggerpisteistä


Hsieh, C.Y., Hong, C.Z., Adams, A.H., Platt, K.J., Danielson, C.D., Hoehler, F.K., Tobis, J.S. 2000: Interexaminer reliability of the palpation of trigger points in the trunk and lower limb muscles. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar;81(3):258-64.

Lucas, N., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Moran, R., Bogduk, N. 2009: Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Journal of Pain; 25(1): 80-89.

Myburgh, C., Larsen, A.H., Hartvigsen, J., 2008, A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial trigger points: evidence and clinical significance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Jun; 89(6):1169-76

Nice, D.A., Riddle, D.L., Lamb, R.L., Mayhew, T.P., Rucker, K. 1992: Intertester reliability of judgments of the presence of trigger points in patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Oct;73(10):893-8.

Quintner, John L. & Cohen, Milton L. 1994: Referred Pain of Peripheral Nerve Origin: An Alternative to the “Myofascial Pain “ Construct. The Clinical Journal of Pain 10:243-251 1994 Raven Press, Ltd, New York.

Quintner JL, Bove GM, and Cohen ML. 2015: A critical evaluation of the trigger point phenomenon. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Mar;54(3):392-9.

Wolfe, F., Simons, D.G., Fricton, J., Bennett, R.M., Goldenberg, D.L., Gerwin, R., Hathaway, D., McCain, G.A., Russell, I.J., Sanders, H.O., et al. 1992: The fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes: a preliminary study of tender points and trigger points in persons with fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome and no disease. J Rheumatol. Jun;19(6):944-51.


Harjoitusterapiasta ja kuntoutuksesta

Steiger F1, Wirth B, de Bruin ED, Mannion AF 2012: Is a positive clinical outcome after exercise therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain contingent upon a corresponding improvement in the targeted aspect(s) of performance? A systematic review. Eur Spine J.

Nascimento, Paulo et al. 2014: Relationship between therapeutic alliance and deep abdominal muscle recruitment in nonspecific low back pain sufferers.

Caneiro et al. 2017: Process of Change in Pain-Related Fear: Clinical Insights From a Single-Case of Persistent Back Pain Managed With Cognitive Functional Therapy. JOSPT




Artus, M., van der Windt, D.A., Jordan, K.P., Hay, E.M. 2010: Low back pain symptoms show a similar pattern of improvement following a wide range of primary care treatments: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Rheumatology (Oxford). Dec;49(12):2346-56

Benedetti et al. 2012: Pain as a reward: Changing the meaning of pain from negative to positive co-activates opioid and cannabinoid systems. IASP Pain 154 (2013) 361-367). Elsevier.

Benedetti, F. 2012: Placebo-induced improvements: how therapeutic rituals affect the patient's brain. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012 Jun;5(3):97-103.

Blickenstaff, Cory - Pearson, Neil 2016: Reconciling movement and exercise with pain neuroscience education: A case for consistent education. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. An International Journal of Physical Therapy.

Freitas et al. 2017: Can chronic stretching change the muscle-tendon mechanical properties? A review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017 Aug 12.

Dorko, Barret 2003: The analgesia of movement: ideomotor activity and manual care. Journal of Osteopathic Medicine Volume 6, Issue 2, October 2003, Pages 93–95. Elsevier.

Hodges Paul W. - Tucker, Kylie 2011: Moving differently in pain: A new theory to explain the adaptation to pain. Pain. Elsevier.

Hofmeijer, Jeannette - Franssen, Hessel - van Schelven, Leonard J. - van Putten, Michel J. A. M. - Mongin, Alexander A. (edit.) 2013: Why Are Sensory Axons More Vulnerable for Ischemia than Motor Axons? PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e67113. Published online Jun 20, 2013.

Ito, Takayuki - Ostry, David J. Speech sounds alter facial skin sensation.

Lametti D.R. - Nasir, S.M. - Ostry, D.J. Sensory preference in speech production revealed by simultaneous alteration of auditory and somatosensory feedback.

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